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In terms of size and biology, surgeonfish are generally small to medium-sized, with most species reaching only about 30 cm in length. They have elongated, oval-shaped bodies and vibrant colors, often with horizontal stripes or other patterns. 

Their sharp, scalpel-like spines on their tails are used for defense against predators.


Surgeonfish are found in a variety of tropical and subtropical marine environments, including coral reefs, lagoons, and coastal waters. They can be found in locations such as the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea.


The diet of surgeonfish consists primarily of algae, but some species may also feed on small invertebrates such as crustaceans and mollusks. They have small, sharp teeth that are well-suited for grazing on algae.


In terms of behavior, surgeonfish are generally peaceful and social, forming schools with other members of their species. They are slow-moving fish that use their sharp spines and vibrant colors for defense against predators.


The Acanthuridae family includes over 100 species of surgeonfish and tangs, grouped into two subfamilies: Acanthurinae and Nasinae. 

The Acanthurinae subfamily includes species such as the blue powder surgeonfish and the yellow tang, while the Nasinae subfamily includes species such as the convict tang and the unicorn tang. Surgeonfish are closely related to other families of marine fish, such as the Chaetodontidae family.

Spotted Surgeonfish graphic
Kole Tang Or Spotted Surgeonfish Or Goldring Surgeonfish Or Yell by Grigory_bruev
Powder-Blue Surgeonfish Clickable
By twenty20photos - Envato Elements
surgeonfish photo
Photo by David Clode on Unsplash
Striped Surgeonfish photo
"Striped Surgeonfish - Acanthurus lineatus" by zsispeo is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.